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Rainbow Stamp News

Monthly e-Stamp Bulletin edited and published by Jeevan Jyoti from Dehradun.

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Rainbow February 2018






Love Flourishes..



Date of Issue : 18 January 2018


Dehradun February 2018 Vol XI Issue No 122

Readers are requested to send reports of philatelic activities in their area for publication. Short write ups by the readers about their journals, societies, publications and philatelic requirements can be sent for inclusion in this bulletin to the editor: j.jyoti9@gmail.com 

Note- This bulletin is only for circulation among a limited group of philatelists without any commercial purpose. The bulletin will be sent to the readers only on request. Those who wish to receive it regularly please reply giving the name of your city / country with the subject SUBSCRIBE RAINBOW

Love is in the air this month……

Greetings on Valentine’s Day 





Dear Reader,

I am pleased to present February 2018 issue of Rainbow Stamp News. In the month of February Valentine’s Day is celebrated on 14th . Valentine’s Day is very popular around the world and is celebrated in many places, including India. It celebrates love between couples and friends. To mark this  ‘Love Day’ many postal administrations issue beautiful Love stamps featuring hearts,  roses, love birds and  word ‘Love’  in exquisite designs for this special day. Valentine’s Day stamps have their own attraction for sending greetings and expressing love . For a thematic collector, it is a beautiful theme. One can make a complete exhibit on ‘Love stamps’ as a large number of stamps have been issued by various countries on this theme. So in this month have some beautiful stamps issued for Valentine’s Day and make your collection rich, special and romantic !

This is all for this month  ! More in next issue !

Happy Collecting!





Contents

§  From the Desk of Naresh Agrawal
§  Recent Indian Issues
§  In The News
§  Doon Philatelic Diary
§  Beginners’ Section
§  Specialized Section 
§  New Issues from Other Countries
§  Philatelic Clubs and Society
§  Blogs & Websites on Philately
§  Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletter

 








New Classes in Philatelic Exhibitions

A few years back there were talks about Social Philately, Open Class as well as Frugal Philately as one could see some articles published in various philatelic journals and magazines introducing and promoting these classes of philately. A genuine ,timely and most desired move in the field of philately to give new life to the dying phase of philately.
Broadly  Social Philately  is basically the liberalized  form of Thematic with inclusion of Postal History elements. It may otherwise be defined as  postal history exhibit displayed thematically  or a thematic exhibit displayed as postal history exhibit telling the history and development of  social system allowing usage / inclusion of various Ephemera, Cinderella and other postal linked material allowing a little percentage of even non – philatelic material. 
And to help the persons who cannot afford expansive postal / philatelic material for collection Frugal Philately had been introduced. Frugal philately may be defined as the collection of philatelic material from rubbish and waste, and is judged not upon its intrinsic value but rather its negligible cost. It may be called inexpensive philately or economical, philately or cheap philately  which has  low priced, thrifty, nominal or bargain basement material.
Well, in India, Social Philately class was first introduced in Stampamania 2009, a National Level Philatelic Exhibition held in Vadodara. Till then frankly most of the philatelists were not aware of this class. Even there was no capable jury to understand properly the parameters of judging this class. Thereafter, though it was there in other shows in India but there was little participation and perhaps no appreciation as no appreciable award was ever given. Frugal Philately has yet to stamp its noticeable presence in Indian shows.

These classes have been included in the exhibitions  but  no higher awards are given to these classes. Why? Either the exhibits are not of that standard or the jury lacked appropriate knowledge to judge these exhibits. Whatever may be the reason, it is time to explore these classes. In the present state of philately when Traditional classes have become expensive, Thematic has broadly established itself and there is immense competition; it is time to appreciate and explore the new classes. Social Philately and Frugal Philately are the new wheels to give pace to the stagnating state of philately. There is a need to let philatelists know what exactly these classes are. More and more exhibits should be welcomed and given appropriate recognition. One must know that these classes are being recognized even in FIAP and FIP exhibitions world over.

Well, while talking about these classes ,I will also talk about the First day Cover Class and Special Cover Class. We all know that most of the new stamp collectors and even veteran philatelists have huge collection of these covers. These classes not only allow the stamp collectors to participate in the exhibitions through their covers but also put before the public and philatelists a range of such covers to know more about these. There is a need to form some specific guidelines to prepare and adjudge these exhibits.

Through the above discussion, I wish to appeal the whole philatelic fraternity in India to encourage these classes and motivate stamp collectors to participate in shows with their collections/ exhibits. At the same time I appeal to the Apex bodies to promote these classes & to train and prepare judges to properly judge such exhibits.

-Naresh Agrawal  Ph. 09425530514  - email :  nareshkumar1992@yahoo.co.in

Recent Indian Issue







8 January 2018 : Central Plantation Crops Research Institute – Rs 15 , Rs 5 + MS
25 January 2018 : India – Vietnam Joint Issue – Rs25 + Rs 5  + MS
25 January 2018 : ASEAN – India Joint Summit 2018 –RS 5 x 11 + MS
26 January 2018 – Potter’s Wheel – Rs 5 + Rs 15


 Recent Special Covers





16 December 2017 : Acharya Pt. Chakradhar Joshi, Dehradun
16 & 17  December 2017 : Uttarakannadapex-2017 , Kumta, Uttara Kannada -5 Special Covers
23 December 2017 : Vegdevi Vilas Instututions- Varthur
28 December 2017 : Completion of 50 Years on awarding Jnanpith Award to Rashtrakavi Kuvempu's Sri Ramayana Darshanam

In The News




2018 Calendar 

 

West Bengal Circle of India Post issued a special 2018  Calendar featuring stories of  famous Stamps of the world , designed by noted artist and philatelist Shri Dipok Dey.This calendar is available at Kolkata Philatelic Bureaue.

Ramayana Calendar by India Post



Business Development & Marketing Directorate of India Post has brought out  a  Calendar for 2018 featuring Ramayana Stamps. The price of this Calendar  is  Rs 100. 

New rules by USPS  for computer-generated stamps in US




A mock- up from the zazzle.com personalized postage provider of one of its design offerings showing toasting champagne flutes. Under new rules, designs featuring alcohol would not be allowed except in situations in certain social contexts, such as weddings.


After a year of study, the United States Postal Service has announced what images and subject matter it will allow on computer-generated postage created by Stamps.comZazzle.com and other companies.

Some mailers are not happy with the Postal Service’s final proposal, printed in the Federal Register on Dec. 19.“A lump of coal,” decried the Alliance of Nonprofit Mailers.
The organization complained the new rules will allow commercial mailers to use almost any commercial display of their products but will discourage nonprofits from expressing their views in the form of postage.
In a Dec. 19 report, the Alliance said, “Apparently, its attorneys are worried that some nonprofit subjects could be ‘threats to the Postal Service brand,’ and it would be ‘impermissible viewpoint discrimination, which would endanger the whole program.’”
What types of images are allowed on the computer-generated postage have already prompted lawsuits that challenge the refusal to allow some images as a violation of free speech rights granted by the Constitution.
But the Postal Service has held fast to its proposed ban on political advertising on postage. The rules ban “any depiction of political, religious, violent or sexual content.”
Postal lawyers maintain that any provider of computer-generated postage must be careful to separate their products, called customized postage, from postage stamps.
“Providers must not promote Customized Postage products as ‘U.S. stamps’ or make any representations tending to imply that Customized Postage products are related in any way to official U.S. postage stamps or to any aspect of the Postal Service philatelic program,” the rules say.
The Postal Service also rejected concerns voiced by Stamps.com that it might be required to change its name or trademarks because of the new rules.
“Neither the proposed nor the final rules require alteration of provider trademarks,” the final rules state.
“The requirement that providers disassociate Customized Postage products from U.S. stamps is intended to protect official USPS stamps and philatelic products and programs from consumer confusion related to the status of Customized Postage products, which are a specialized form of evidence of prepayment of postage,” the revisions state.
“The final rules simply require providers not to ‘promote’ Customized Postage products as being official U.S. postage stamps,” the USPS said.
What troubled the Alliance most was the deference the Postal Service paid to commercial organizations, compared to nonprofits, which were placed under a “social” category.
“Commercial” was defined by the USPS as a “means intended for no purpose other than the sale of goods or services in commerce.”
Social “means promoting or depicting people, animals, items, or events commonly associated with community relations or companionship and likely to generate invitations, announcements, notices, thank-you notes, RSVPs, or similar correspondence.”
What is specifically banned?
“(i) Any non-incidental depiction of alcohol, tobacco, gambling, or firearms or other weapons;
“(ii) Any depiction of controlled substances, including but not limited to marijuana,
“(iii) Any depiction of political, religious, violent or sexual content; or
“(iv) Any depiction of subject matter prohibited for display under U.S. law.”
The rules also ban use of logos of beer and alcoholic beverages.
“Although allowing incidental depictions of alcohol in a commercial or social context is acceptable under the final rules, allowing the non-incidental display of logos promoting alcoholic beverage sales creates more brand risks, and arguably opens other commercial categories that the Postal Service may be compelled to accept by First Amendment principles, e.g., logos promoting tobacco, weapons, or gambling enterprises.”
The rules rejected the Alliance’s complaint of preference to commercial firms, saying that nonprofits would be allowed the same freedom to purchase computer-generated postage as would any mailer.
Both Stamps.com and Zazzle had voiced concerns about the initial USPS proposal on images. Neither responded to Linn’s when asked about their views on the final regulations.
Source : Linn’s Stamp News







THAILAND 2018 is an extraordinary world stamp exhibition organized by the Philatelic Association of Thailand under the Patronage of H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn from November 28 to December 3, 2018 at the Royal Paragon Hall, Siam Paragon, Bangkok, Thailand on the auspicious occasion of the First Anniversary Celebration of H.M. King Maha Vajiralongkorn’s Royal Coronation Ceremony. The 75th Congress of the International Philatelic Federation (FIP) will also be held at THAILAND 2018.

THAILAND 2018 with a capacity of 2500 display frames is the only General World exhibition in the year 2018 with participation open in all Classes viz FIP Championship, Traditional, Postal History, Postal Stationery, Aerophilately, Astrophilately, Thematic, Maximaphily, Revenues, Youth, Literature, One Frame, Modern Philately and Open Philately.

The participation fee for Competitive Classes (except Youth Philately, Literature and One Frame) will be USD80 per frame. The fee for participation in Literature Class is USD90 per exhibit. The fee for participation in One Frame Class is USD100 per exhibit. There is no participation fee for Youth Philately Class.





Mr. Madhukar Jhingan is the National Commissioner for India.

The minimum eligibility for participation in THAILAND 2018 is winning at least a vermeil award at the National exhibition. The Exhibit Application forms and the detailed rules of exhibition (IREX) are available for download at 
http://thailand2018.org/

The duly filled Forms along with a copy of the first page of the exhibit should be submitted to the National Commissioner for India, Madhukar Jhingan, mj@stampsofindia.com +919811160965 by March 1, 2018.

Source : Stamps of India


Scholarship for Promotion of Aptitude & Research in Stamps as a Hobby




India Post recently launched a national philatelic scholarship program for students in an attempt to promote the hobby to the country’s youth.
According to government press release, the scholarship program—known as Deen Dayal SPARSH Yojana (Scholarship for Promotion of Aptitude & Research in Stamps as a Hobby)—will be available to a total of 920 students. Each student will be given 500  rupees  each month for a year by Department of Post.
To avail this scholarship, a child must be a student of a recognized school within India and the concerned school should have a Philately Club and the candidate should be a member of the Club. In case the school Philately Club hasn’t been established a student having his own Philately Deposit Account will also be considered,” reads the press release.

“Every prospective school, which participates in the competition, would be assigned a Philately mentor to be chosen from amongst the renowned Philatelists. The Philately mentor would help in formation of the School level Philately Club, providing guidance to young and aspiring Philatelists on how to pursue the hobby and also helping the aspiring Philatelists on their Philately Projects etc.”

Recent Stamp Exhibitions




Commissioner for MACAO 2018 Philatelic Exhibition (FIAP)
Mr. Anil Suri has been appointed as Indian National Commissioner for the MACAO 2018, FIAP Specialized Stamp Exhibition to be held in Macao, Macau from 21 to 24 September 2018.

Exhibition Classes: Traditional, Postal History, Postal Stationery, Thematic, Youth, One Frame (TR, PH, PS, AE, AS, TH, MA & RE), Literature and Modern Philately only.

Eligibility: The minimum eligibility for participation in a FIAP exhibition for Senior Class & Youth Class (Groups B & C) is Vermeil Medal and for Youth Class (Group A) a Large Silver Medal secured at a National Exhibition.
Contact information:
Mr. Anil Suri,
Khushal Villa, E-70, Kalkaji,
NEW DELHI - 110 019.

Phone: (Res.) +91-11-2643 0813 / (Off.) +91-11-2647 4681
(M): +919811176908
Email: 
anilksuri@email.com
Commissioner for PRAGA 2018 Philatelic Exhibition (FIP)



Mr. Rajan Jaykar has been appointed as Indian National Commissioner for the PRAGA 2018, FIP Specialized World Stamp Exhibition to be held in Prague, Czech Republic from 15 to 18 August 2018.

Exhibition Classes: Traditional, Postal History, Modern Philately (Trad. & PH), One Frame (Trad. & PH), Open Philately and Philatelic Literature Classes only.

Eligibility:  The minimum eligibility for participation in a FIP exhibition for Senior & Youth Class Groups B & C is Vermeil Medal secured at a National Exhibition and for Youth Class Group A Large Silver Medal.
Contact information:
Mr. Rajan Jayakar
Flat No. 2, Court View, 126, Maharashi Karve Road,
Churchgate, MUMBAI - 400 020.

Phone: +91-22-22820570 / +91-22-22820572
(M): +9198210 72417
Email: 
rajanjayakar1948@gmail.com

FORTHCOMING INTERNATIONAL STAMP EXHIBITIONS UNDER FIP/FIAP

2018 May 27-31: Jerusalem, Israel, ISRAEL 2018 World Stamp Championship

2018 Aug 15-18: Prague, Czech Republic, PRAGA 2018 World Stamp Exhibition

2018 Sep 21-24: Macao, MACAO 2018 35th FIAP International Stamp Exhibition
2018 Dec: THAILAND 2018 World Stamp Exhibition.



PCI Meeting


The Bi-annual General Body Meeting and Elections for the New Governing Council (2018-2020) are scheduled to be held at Chennai on 29th April 2018

Wedding Bells



Heartiest Congratulations to Shri Naresh Agrawal and Mrs Namita Agrawal on  auspicious occasion of the wedding ceremony of their dear daughter Nimisha with Prateek on 5th February 2018. With Love and blessings, we wish a very Happy married life to the lovely couple.




Doon Philatelic Diary

Shri Kedarnath Temple




Abhai Mishra


Shri Kedarnath is one of the twelve jyotirlingas and is situated amidst the snow capped peaks of the Himalayas. It lies in Garhwal Himalayas, Uttarakhand near the Mandakini river. The temple opens on Akshay Tritiya (somewhere in April) and closes on Kartik Purnima (in November). Rest for around six months during extreme winters it is closed and the deities are worshipped at Ukhimath during that period. The area was badly affected during the 2013 flash floods but the temple structure did not suffer any major damage. The regular route was washed away in the flash floods and now the pilgrims have to cover a longer trek route to reach the temple.


  
  
It is believed that the temple was built  by Pandavas with the present structure constructed in the eighth century by Adi Sankaracharya. It has a ‘garbgriha’ and a ‘mandapa’ with ‘Nandi’ sitting just opposite to the shrine. According to the legends pandavas went for pilgrimage after the kurushetra war to absolve them of their sin. They tried to seek the ‘darshan’ of Lord Shiva for washing away their sins. On seeing them Lord Shiva hid himself and the place is now known as ‘Gupkashi’. But Pandavas pursued him and recognized him in the disguised form of Nandi. When Bhima, the second Pandava brother tried to hold the bull by its tail and hind legs, Nandi vanished from Guptakashi, into the ground (into a cave for hiding), but reappeared later as Shiva in five different forms namely, hump at Kedarnath, face at Rudranath, arms at Tungnath, navel and stomach at Madhyamaheshwar and the locks at Kalpeshwar.



The presiding image of Kedaranth in the form of lingam is or irregular shape with an pedestal 3.6 m (12 ft) in circumference and 3.6 m (12 ft) in height. The head priest (Raval) of the Kedarnath temple belongs to the Veerashaiva community from Karnataka. However, unlike in Badrinath temple, the Raval of Kedarnath temple does not perform the pujas. The pujas are carried out by Raval's assistants on his instructions.
There was earlier post office at ‘Gaurikund’ and ‘Kedarnath’ but during the flash flood of 2013 both of them were washed away.
References - Wikipedia

 Abhai Mishra - email : abhai_mishra@rediffmail.com

Beginners’ Section




Famous stamps of the World : The Bull’s Eye


The Bull's Eye (Portuguese Olho-de-boi) postage stamps were the first stamps issued by Brazil, on 1 August 1843, having face values of 30, 60, and 90 réis. Brazil was the second country in the world, after the United Kingdom, to issue postage stamps valid within the entire country (as opposed to a local issue).[1] Like the United Kingdoms's first stamps, the design does not include the country name.
The unusual name derives from the ornamental value figures inside the oval settings, and the arrangement of the stamps in the sheet, which permitted se-tenant pairs that looked like a pair of bull's eyes. The unusual naming of Brazilian stamps continued with the later issue of smaller, but rectangular designs, which were nicknamed snake's eyes, and the issue of similar designs to the Bull's Eyes, but smaller, of which the blue were called goat's eyes, and the black, cat's eyes.
There were 1,148,994 30 réis stamps printed, 1,502,142 of the 60 réis value, and 349,182 of the 90 réis stamp. The 90 réis issue were reserved for international mail only.

Specialized Section


1928 Discovery of Hawaii Stamps


Col J Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta


Polynesians were the first people to settle the Hawaiian Islands. They journeyed across the Pacific, moving from island to island in giant canoes. They probably reached Hawaii around 2,000 years ago. Another group from Tahiti reached the islands in 1200 A.D. and conquered the earlier settlers. The name Hawaii is either derived from the name of a chief, Hawaii-loa, or the legendary name of the Polynesian homeland to the west, Hawaiki.

 Although European or Japanese ships may have reached the Hawaiian Islands during the 1500s, Great Britain’s Captain James Cook was responsible for making them known to the rest of the world. Cook landed there on January 18, 1778, and engaged in friendly trade. It is estimated that about 300,000 people lived in Hawaii at that time. The Hawaiians believed Cook had divine powers and considered him a great chief. He named the islands in honor of the first lord of the British admiralty, the Earl of Sandwich. Cook left the Sandwich Islands after two weeks. He returned in November 1778, and was later killed when a fight broke out between the Hawaiians and his men.
 Cook’s voyages brought more explorers and traders to Hawaii. The first trading ship stopped there in 1786 while transporting a load of furs from Oregon to China. New types of livestock, manufactured goods, and plants were introduced to the islands. Unfortunately, new diseases took a devastating toll on the islanders.

 Local chiefs had controlled the islands throughout Hawaii’s history. In 1782, Chief Kamehameha obtained firearms from European traders and began a bloody war to unite the islands into a kingdom. By 1792, he controlled Hawaii Island. Three years later, he controlled all the main islands except Kauai and Niihau. Kamehameha appointed the local chiefs as governors and proclaimed himself King Kamehameha I. The chiefs of Kauai and Niihau accepted Kamehameha’s rule in 1810.
Hawaii adopted its first constitution in 1840. The United States recognized Hawaii as an independent government in 1842.

King Kalakaua gave the U.S. the right to use Pearl Harbor as a Naval base in 1887 in return for trading privileges. In 1891, Kalakaua died and his sister was crowned Queen Liluokalani. Liluokalani attempted to install a new constitution that would increase her power. In 1893, a group of nine Americans, two Britons, and two Germans led a revolution against Liluokalani, removing her from office. U.S. marines and sailors aided the revolutionaries. In 1894, the Republic of Hawaii was formed. This short-lived nation had just one president, Sanford B. Dole.

Hawaii then came under the control of U.S. businessmen. These businessmen lobbied for Hawaii to be annexed by the U.S. – which was financially beneficial to their interests. On August 12, 1898, the islands were officially annexed and became U.S. possessions. Hawaii became a U.S. territory on June 14, 1900. Hawaiians became U.S. citizens. However, their Congressional representative could not vote and the U.S. Congress could veto any law passed by their legislature.

The first bill attempting to make Hawaii a state was introduced in 1919. In 1950, Hawaii adopted a constitution in preparation for statehood. Congress approved the appropriate legislation in 1959 and President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill. The matter went before the Hawaiian people, who voted 17 to 1 in favor of statehood. On August 21, 1959, Hawaii achieved statehood.

In 1928, suggestions were made to issue a stamp commemorating the 150thanniversary of the discovery of Hawaii. Although the Post Office Department initially refused, they eventually agreed to issue a pair of overprinted stamps that would be much less costly than designing and printing new stamps. These Hawaiian Sesquicentennial stamps were overprinted versions of the Regular Series of 1922-26 (first day of issue: August 13, 1928, quantity issued: 5,519,897). However, when the stamps were issued, many post offices around the country were unaware of them and refused to accept them, claiming they were already canceled and not fit for postage.




The use of a somewhat generic overprint was the result of a disagreement between Wallace Farrington, the Governor of Hawaii and Harry New, the Postmaster General.  New felt that commemorative stamps should be focus on topics that were of interest nationwide and that the discovery of Hawaii was not of interest to most Americans.  Farrington obviously felt differently.  They compromised by issuing the two unremarkable overprints instead of a new design.  These stamps had limited distribution and were only sold in Honolulu and to stamp collectors from the Philatelic Sales Agency in Washington D.C.

-       Col J Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta - email : doctorjayanta2009@gmail.com


THE  STORY  OF  PIGEON  POST IN INDIA
( Pigeon Mail : The First Air Mail Of The World )








Naresh Agrawal




PIGEON AS A MESSENGER  ( The Flying Postman ) 

Pigeons have an extraordinary homing instinct, natural habit and ability of returning unerringly to their homes at high speed after a flight of quite longer distances in any direction. This ability of theirs navigate from anywhere to their lofts at high speed was recognized and used quite early during ancient times which was utilized in sending and receiving messages from time to time by individuals, rulers, administrations, traders, financiers and others. The messages written on thin small paper were tagged to pigeon’s legs or paws or claws who was then released. The pigeon then flew back to his loft with the messages  where the receiver removed the message.                                                

                                                               
   

INDIAN  PIGEONS  



PIGEON POST  OR  MAIL

Pigeon post is the use of homing pigeons and other birds to carry messages from one place to the other who are effective as messengers due to their natural homing abilities. The pigeons were transported to a destination in cages or lofts, where messages would be attached to their paws or legs  and then the pigeon would fly back to its home naturally where the owner could detach the message and read it.
The term is used both to refer to physical items of mail, and to the system used to transport them. While pigeon post is largely obsolete today, it was at one point a very trendy method of carrying light mail. Although the use of pigeons for carrying mail was never widespread, people would sometimes send mail by pigeon, as would people in the financial industry who wanted to transmit news
                                            


INTERNATIONAL REPLY COUPAN OF BRITISH INDIA PERIOD
This practice of use of carrier pigeons is ancient. The Greeks and Romans both used pigeon post to convey information, and many pigeons worked in military service too for carrying messages with troop orders and other military material from place to place. In addition to pigeons, birds of prey were sometimes used for messages.
In a way, the pigeon post could be considered the first form of airmail. Pigeons are still used to carry messages in some remote regions of the world where other postal options are not available, and pigeon enthusiasts also keep birds for the purpose of sending messages to other enthusiasts, keeping this ancient tradition alive.
EARLY HISTORY  :

Pigeon post references can be found  very ancient in India. Various Indian epics have reflections of the usage of flying birds to carry messages. In Mahabharata , King Dhrupad dispatched the message instructing King Dhritirashtra to give away half the kingdom, through the Royal Priest.

Centuries down, the practice of using Brahmin priests for carrying letters in a private postal system called the  Brahmini Dak , reflects the importance accorded to such trusted human carriers.  Mahabharata  too has a romantic legend mentioning how a swan was used to convey the message of prince Nal to princess Damayanti.
                                                     



MEGHDOOT,THE CLOUD – MESSENGER

Like in ancient India pigeons were also worshipped. The earliest known records of homing pigeon use for message delivery in ancient Egypt are from 5600 B.C. and around 3000 BC., incoming ships released pigeons as an announcement of important visitors More and more military, political, and economic importance was attributed to this fast method of delivering messages and the earliest large-scale communication network using pigeons as messengers was established in Syria and Persia around the 5th century BC. Between about 770 BC and 390 AD, the Greeks used pigeons to carry the results of the Olympic Games.

King Chandragupta Maurya,(340-293 BCE) and his grandson Emperor Ashoka (304–232 BC) the great used pigeons as message carriers during their reign for  the needs of intelligence gathering and collection of revenue data between the capital and the outlying provinces of the vast kingdom , whence regular messengers, doots and pigeons were used for conveying the royal communiqué.


       Chandragupta Maurya    
               
During the Dark Ages the Arabs established regular airmail pigeon courier services. According to one tale, a caliph in North Africa satisfied his taste for Lebanese cherries by having pigeons fly them in. Each carried one cherry inside a silk bag. It was the first parcel post. Reportedly, a prize pair of carrier pigeons in the Arab empire could fetch one thousand gold pieces.
In the middle ages, in the 4th century of the common era, the Romans developed a pigeon post to carry important messages throughout the Roman Empire. The news of capture Damietta by St. Louis was announced by sultan by this means.

PIGEON  POST  DURING AND AFTER 11th CENTENARY   :

Domesticated pigeons are first developed in ancient Egypt, and the pigeon loft or dovecote subsequently becomes a living larder for many communities - such as medieval monasteries. In India also domestication of pigeons were practiced but not in a developed manner.

In Baghdad, in the 11th century, the idea first occurred of making use of the tendency of certain pigeons to fly straight home from wherever they might be. The city of Baghdad and all the main towns and cities in Syria and Egypt were linked by messages carried by pigeons. Later, the most wide-ranging conqueror of medieval history, Genghis Khan, operated such a system during his conquests. He created a pigeon network that spanned one-sixth of the world and established pigeon relay posts across and Asia and much of Eastern Europe. Wars and emergencies popularized the pigeon post in China, Persia and India.
                              
                         
                      
     Genghis Khan

DURING AND AFTER 15th CENTENARY  :

There were pigeon posts in existence during the Dutch war in the 16Th century. Besieged Haarlem used pigeons to convey messages in 1573 A.D., and Leyden in 1574 A.D.
                                              
In India ,the Mughal emperor Babar inherited this mail carrying method from his forefathers and the pigeon post was in use throughout the Mughal period. He wrote in his biography about the sport of pigeon keeping. During his reign, a rapid one-way postal service (always back to base) became possible. The art of breeding pigeons was also developed by selective breeding of suitable homing pigeons during this period..
                                                
                 
                                     

During reign of Akbar i.e 1556 to 1605, Pigeon post was in random use, as also camels in desert areas. The pigeon carriers were housed in the royal palace, where they were trained to carry news over the far-flung territories.  
                 
References to the use of royal pigeons and camels have also been found. Though camels and camel caravans were used primarily in desert areas, camels were also used in non-desert zones, specifically for carrying royal or State Mail.

The introduction of  pigeon post is attributed to Akbar, and not Jahangir, as mentioned in several accounts as Akbar was crazy about pigeon keeping. Whenever he went on a trip his men carried pigeons with him. Normally more than two thousands birds went with him  kept in special carriers.
 Pigeons were trained and housed in the royal palace, in the Kabutar-Khaana, found even today in the relics of Mughal palaces. They were used to carry urgent missives over short distances, exclusively for royal purpose. The practice continued to be favoured by Jahangir who extended its use to special occasions.

                                                     


 AKBAR

In eighteenth century, Tipu Sultan, an Indian ruler (1782 – 1799 ) used carrier pigeons. Pigeons used to return to the Jamia Masjid mosque in   Srirangapattnam which was his headquarters. The pigeon holes may be seen in the mosque's minarets to this day.

                     
                                
       TIPU  SULTAN

The practice of using  homing pigeons  as message carriers also prevailed from the earliest times. Amazingly, they were being officially used by government departments as pigeon posts in remote areas even now a days. Orissa State Police is one such department which used  pigeons as mail carriers till 2004 in India.




Almost in all the palaces in Rajasthan and other states of India , carrier pigeons had been deployed for mail service, which was pretty reliable . The photo shows the pigeon cages used to house the carrier pigeons inside the Udaipur City Palace. It is now just a reminder of old times, since the carrier pigeon service was discontinued many decades back.


PIGEON POST IN ORISSA   :

The Orrissa Police is the only state force in India which adopted and maintained this method of communication since 1946. They procured 40 pigeons from the departing colonial government at the close of the WWII. The force had a strength of 1926 Homing Pigeons spread over 17 police districts of the state in 2004.The pigeons were trained on three courses-static, mobile and boomerang.


                                            
The static category formed a batch in which pigeons were moved with the forces leaving headquarters for remote areas and were released in the sky whenever the need arose  for communication with Hqtrs. In the mobile category, the police took the trailer along with pigeons to the place of operation. In the third-boomerang-category, the pigeons were trained to deliver and return with the message within their flying area, usually restricted to 50 miles both ways.
                                                



                                        Orissa police carrier pigeons: facing the sack.
India's Police Pigeon Service - which for more than half a century has provided a lifeline during frequent floods and cyclones in eastern Orissa state - is to be scrapped, according to a government proposal


Unfortunately this, the world’s last pigeon courier service - had been stopped on the ground of its high cost of procurement and maintenance in comparison to the latest developments in the telecommunication and satellite services  encouraging the usage of internet and  mobile phones etc.. And hence, in 2004 all the birds were retired from their  services and were freed from their lofts. Orissa police pigeon fleet has served the state during various calamities and  situation of urgency.

PIGEONGRAM  :

Though there is no recorded history of issuance of modern pigeongrams in India but it was in 1931 when first official pigeon post was organized with messages  carried by pigeons from Asansol to Kolkatta.  There after there has been regular commemoration of this service during different events, exhibitions etc. in different parts of the India. Though Calcutta Homing Pigeon Club has played a great role in keeping this service alive by providing pigeons during such shows. The pigeon mail in India now is very seldom used but officially it  was closed in 2004 when Orissa police retired their fleet of about 800 pigeons .
The pigeon mail covers and the messages carried by them are known as pigeongram or pigeon o gram. Given hereunder is  study of various pigeiongrams issued in India during different  events starting from 1931 till 2009

1931

The first recorded modern pigeon mail service was organized by Calcutta Homing Pigeon Club, Calcutta from Asansol to Calcutta on 18th Feb 1931 when pigeon grams i.e. cover with  messages were sent through various pigeons to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the world’s first official airmail service which was organized from Allahabad to Naini on 18.Feb. 1911. The covers were stamped in red “FIRST  INDIAN PIGEONGRAM”.

18th Feb.1931 tiny cover with 1an Inauguration value cancelled at PARK  ST. P.O., CALCUTTA   cachets front FIRST  INDIAN  PIGEONGRAM carried by pigeon  LONESOME, from  Asansol to Calcutta 


India, Pigeon Post Collection, 1931-41. Thirteen items incl. first modern pigeongram dispatched in India with cover which carried it to its final destination, 1933 Indian Airmail Society commemorative pigeongram and cover which carried it to its final destination, 1941 pigeongram to raise funds for the British Navy (250 flown) with cover that carried it to its final destination, and five 1940 Indian Airmail Society covers (two different styles) that forwarded a pigeon flown flimsy incl. two with original flimsies, on exhibit pages.

                
             

                      Pigeongram Cover  dated 18th  Feb.1931 delivered by a carrier pigeon named  ECLIPSE who flew it from Asansol to Calcutta,



Pigeongram Message dated 18th  Feb.1931 delivered by a carrier pigeon named RUBYS LOVE  who flew it from Asansol to Calcutta


Pigeongrams, group of ten slips comprised of Asanol to Calcutta (2) and Hazaribagh to Calcutta (8), all signed on reverse by Stephen Smith, plus two covers containing pigeongrams franked with George V 1a3p tied by magenta "Kalyan/First Pigeon Missive/6 Apr 1941" datestamps,

Another pigeonmail service was organized  in December 1931 when missives from His Excellency The Viceroy were carried from Hazaribagh to Calcutta. The  service was organized through Calcutta Homing Pigeon Club,Calcutta. The covers were affixed with King George  Stamps and cancelled PARK STREET , CALCUTTA dated  31.Dec. 1931.



31st Dec. 1931, Pigeongram envelope franked with  3p stamp tied by Calcutta c   in red with missive from His Excellency The Viceroy carried by homing pigeon 'MOLLY' from Hazaribagh to Calcutta




31st Dec. 1931, Pigeongram envelope franked with  2 nos. 3pstamps tied by Calcutta cds in  red with enclosed missive from His Excellency The Viceroy carried by homing pigeon 'Little Titch' from Hazaribagh to Calcutta
.

1933
Indian Air Mail Society organized another pigeon mail service on 19th Jan. 1933 when missives from His Excellency The Viceroy during his camps in India. The messages were carried from Chandranagore ( French Settlement ) to Calcutta by Homing Pigeons. The pigeongrams had a  white and blue vignette affixed on them with a homing pigeon and flag on it. The covers were signed by Mr. Stephen Smith on the reverse.


                  

19th Jan.1933 letter cover ( pigeongram) with vignette and ½ an. postal stamp carried  a message from His Excellency The Viceroy by Homing Pigeon   SANS AME  from            Chandernagore to Park Street Post Office,Calcutta



                          
                   19th Jan.1933 letter cover with vignette and ½ A. postal stamp carried  a message from His Excellency The Viceroy by Homing Pigeon   LITTLE TITCH from Chandernagore to Park Street Post Office,Calcutta
      


1940
Again in 1940, The Indian Air Mail Society organized another pigeon mail service on 18th Oct. 1940 when messages were carried from Chandranagore ( French Settlement ) to Calcutta by Homing Pigeons. The pigeongrams addressed to the secretary, Indian Airmail Society had a  Red Cross mark and the missive  at front  affixed with King George  Stamp. The covers were signed by Mr. Stephen Smith on the reverse.







18th Oct. 1940 letter cover (Pigeongram) with a red cross and  ½ A. postal stamp at front  carried  a message  by Homing Pigeon  ROBY from Chandernagore to Park Street Post Office, Calcutta signed by Stephhen Smith on its reverse

       

18th Oct. 1940 letter cover (Pigeongram) with a red cross and  ½ A. postal stamp at front  carried  a message  by Homing Pigeon  QUEENIE from Chandernagore to Park Street Post Office, Calcutta signed by Stephhen Smith on its reverse

To be contd…
: Naresh Agrawal - email : nareshkumar1992@yahoo.co.in


Ahmedabad
India’s Ist UNESCO World Heritage City  (Part 1)








-ILYAS PATEL

July 8, 2017
The citizens of Ahmedabad were in hilarious mood as UNESCO declared the Historic City of Ahmadabad or Old Ahmadabad as India’s first World Heritage City. With this tag, Ahmedabad joined Paris, Vienna, Cairo, Brussels, Rome and Edinburgh as World Heritage cities. With its wooden pol (street) houses symbolizing community living, the wonderfully carved Hindu and Jain temples and one of the finest Indo-Islamic architecture, Ahmedabad stands tall with its rich, textured heritage. DebasishNaik of Ahmedabad University says, “It’s the most spectacular achievement for Ahmedabad in 2017 as it has put Ahmedabad on the global map”.

Ahmedabad is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat. With a population of more than 6.3 million and an extended population of 7.8 million, it is the sixth largest city and seventh largest metropolitan area of India. It is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River, 30 km from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.

Ahmedabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of cotton in India, and its stock exchange is the country's second oldest. In 2010, it was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the decade. In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as India's best city to live in. Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Government of India's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
History
The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as Ashaval (or Ashapalli). At that time, Karna, the Chaulukya ruler of Anhilwara (modern Patan), waged a successful war against the Bhil king of Ashaval, and established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati. Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka. Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. However, by the earlier 15th century, the local governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar established his independence from the Delhi Sultanate and crowned himself Sultan of Gujarat as Muzaffar Shah I, thereby founding the Muzaffarid dynasty. This area finally came under the control of his grandson Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1411 A.D. who while at the banks of Sabarmati liked the forested area for a new capital city and laid the foundation of a new walled city and named it Ahmedabad after the four saints in the area by the name Ahmed. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411 (at 1.20 pm, Thursday, the second day of Dhu al-Qi'dahHijri year 813) at ManekBurj. He chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411.

In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements. In 1535 Humayun briefly occupied Ahmedabad after capturing Champaner when the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, fled to Diu. Ahmedabad was then reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the Empire's thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, which were exported as far as Europe. The Mughal ruler Shahjahan spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the MotiShahiMahal in Shahibaug. Ahmedabad remained the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to the Marathas.
During the period of Maratha Empire governance, the city became the centre of a conflict between two Maratha clans; the Peshwa of Poona and the Gaekwad of Baroda. In 1780, during the First Anglo-Maratha War, a British force under James Hartley stormed and captured Ahmedabad, but it was handed back to the Marathas at the end of the war. The British East India Company took over the city in 1818 during the Third Anglo-Maratha War. A military cantonment was established in 1824 and a municipal government in 1858. Incorporated into the Bombay Presidency during British rule, Ahmedabad became one of the most important cities in the Gujarat region. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and Mumbai (then Bombay) was established by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (BB&CI), enabling traffic and trade between northern and southern India via the city. Over time, the city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it the nickname "Manchester of the East".

1953 meter of Calico Mill     


 Pioneers of Ahmedabad  Textile Business and famous Calico Museum
                    

 (Courtesy: Mainak Kathiara) for Textile Exhibition

The Indian independence movement developed roots in the city when Mahatma Gandhi established two ashrams – the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram (now Sabarmati Ashram) on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 – which would become centers of nationalist activities.During the mass protests against the Rowlatt Act in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the First World War. In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the Salt Satyagraha from Ahmedabad by embarking from his ashram on the Dandi Salt March. The city's administration and economic institutions were rendered inoperative in the early 1930s by the large numbers of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests, and again in 1942 during the Quit India Movement.



By 1960, Ahmedabad had become a metropolis with a population of slightly under half a million people, with classical and colonial European-style buildings lining the city's thoroughfares. It was chosen as the capital of Gujarat state after the partition of the State of Bombay on 1 May 1960. During this period, a large number of educational and research institutions were founded in the city, making it a centre for higher education, science and technology. Ahmedabad's economic base became more diverse with the establishment of heavy and chemical industry during the same period.

Geography

The City of Ahmedabad is divided by the river Sabarmati into two physically distinct eastern and western regions. The eastern bank of the river houses the old city, which includes the central town of Bhadra. This part of Ahmedabad is characterized by packed bazaars, the pol system of closely clustered buildings, and numerous places of worship. A Pol (pronounced as pole) is a housing cluster which comprises many families of a particular group, linked by casteprofession, or religionThis is a list of Pols in the old walled city of Ahmedabad in GujaratIndia. Heritage of these Pols has helped Ahmedabad gain a place in UNESCO's Tentative Lists, in selection criteria II, III and IV. The secretary-general of EuroIndia Centre quoted that if 12000 homes of Ahmedabad are restored they could be very helpful in promoting heritage tourism and its allied businesses. The first pol in Ahmedabad was named Mahurat Pol. Old city also houses the main railway station, the main post office, and some buildings of the Muzaffarid and British eras. The colonial period saw the expansion of the city to the western side of Sabarmati, facilitated by the construction of Ellis Bridge in 1875 rebuilt in 1892 and later the relatively modern Nehru Bridge and Sardar Bridge. The western part of the city houses educational institutions, modern buildings, residential areas, shopping malls, multiplexes and new business districts centredaround roads such as Ashram RoadC. G. Road and Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway.

Sabarmati Riverfront is a waterfront being developed along the banks of Sabarmati River in Ahmedabad, the construction of which began in 2005
Cityscape

Early in Ahmedabad's history, under Ahmed Shah, builders fused Hindu craftsmanship with Persian architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style. Many mosques in the city were built in this fashion. SidiSaiyyed Mosque was built in the last year of the Sultanate of Gujarat. It is entirely arched and has ten stone latticework windows or jali on the side and rear arches. Private mansions or haveli from this era have carvings. A Pol is a typical housing cluster of Old Ahmedabad.

After independence, modern buildings appeared in Ahmedabad. Architects given commissions in the city included Louis Kahn, who designed the IIM-ALe Corbusier, who designed the Shodhan and Sarabhai Villas, the Sanskar Kendra and the Mill Owner's Association Building, and Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed the administrative building of Calico Mills and the Calico Dome. B. V. Doshi came to the city from Paris to supervise Le Corbusier's works and later set up the School of Architecture. His local works include Sangath, Amdavadni Gufa and the School of Architecture. Charles Correa, who became a partner of Doshi's, designed the Gandhi Ashram and Achyut Kanvinde, and the Indian Textile Industries Research Association. Christopher Charles Benninger's first work, the Alliance Française, is located in the Ellis Bridge area.AnantRaje designed major additions to Louis Kahn's IIM-A campus, namely the Ravi Mathai Auditorium and KLMD.




Islamic Architecture
Bhadra Fort


Sultan Ahmed Shah started the work of foundation of the city with the construction of Royal Palace. People call it- Bhadra Fort. When the Sultan established Ahmedabad, he had in his mind AnhilpurPatan. He took it as a model for the capital. The fort of Patan was called Bhadra. Therefore Ahmed Shah also called his new fort Bhadra.

According to Mirat-e-Ahmedi this fort is called Arak Fort. The total area of the fort was 43 acres and there were 14 circular structures. The structure that we can watch now is the incomplete ManekBurj. As Ellisbridge was extended, some of its portion was removed so a new form came into existence. The portion on the North East side wall was removed and SidiSaiyeds Mosque was constructed. Ajam khans Palace in the east was also constructed during Mughal period after removing some portion of the fort. The original Bhadra Fort had six big and two small gates. The main gate in the east is mentioned as PiranPirsDarwaja. We know it as BhadraDarwaja. Another main gate was in the north of Bhadra Fort. It was called LalDarwaja. At present, only wall of LalDarwaja is in existence, which is seen opposite to road on the north of SidiSaiyed's Mosque. The area opposite to Electricity House is known as LalDarwaja. The third gate was in the south west. It was known as Ganesh Bari. The southern gate led to Ahmed Shah's Mosque. There were two gates of normal size at the spot where telegraph office exists today. There were two gates in the west, namely Baradari and Ram Darwaja. There was a well near BaradariDarwaja, which was used to provide irrigation to the garden. There was a royal garden within the fort known as 'Naginabaug'.
The royal Palace of Bhadra got damaged before Jahangir came to throne. A traveller, Mendelslow describe this fort as the biggest fort among the big states.

Ahmed Shah's Mosque

Ahmed Shahs Mosque is in the south of Bhadra Fort and just opposite to Gujarat Club. Ahmed Shah started construction of this mosque in 1411, the year in which he laid the foundation stone of the city. The construction work was over by December 1414. The stone inscription in Persian language tells that it was built by Ahmed Shah placed in the mosque. This mosque is renovated recently.


Rani Sipri Mosque




This mosque is situated near AstodiaDarwaja built by Sipri, begum of Muhammad Begada in 1514. The begums name is mentioned as Asani in the references about construction of the mosque. Its balconies are grand, its carving is subtle like that of a haveli. Its slender minarets are solid and purely ornamental. It is one of the finest mosques in Ahmedabad.

Rani Rupmati Mosque




This mosque is situated in Mirzapur. It is opposite to St.Xaviers High School. As the name suggests, it is one of the most beautiful mosques of Ahmedabad. Its minarets were damaged in the earthquake of 1819. Rani Rupmati was begum of Qutbuddin. After the death of Qutbuddin, his step brother Muhammad Begada married Rani Rupmati. In the construction of the mosque we find blend of Hindu style and Islamic style in pillars and arches.

Sidi Saiyed Mosque




SidiSaiyed-ni-Jali is a unique feature of Ahmedabad. It is found in SidiSaiyed Mosque, opposite Electricity House, near LalDarwaja. This elegant mosque was built by SidiSaiyed in 1573. The Jalis are in rear wall of the mosque. The Jalis have fine carving design in geometrical and intertwined tree and foliage, palm and parasite motif. Such Jalis are found nowhere in the entire world. Numerous visitors have admired the carving of the Jali is generously. A silver replica of this Jali is available in the market. It is used as a gift to the guests and visitors as memory of their visit.

The Shaking Minarets - Sidi Bashir's Mosque




The Shaking Minarets, the wonders of the city, are situated near water tank of Sarangpur Darwaja on the eastern side of new reservation office of Ahmedabad Railway station. The peculiarity of these minarets is that if you shake one minaret, the other one will also begin to shake automatically. The reaction of the movement of one minaret is received by the other one. These minarets are parts of the mosque, which was built by Sidi Bashir in 1452.

The mosque was badly damaged during the battle between Marathas and JavanmardhkhanBabi, but the minarets were saved. At present, the entry to minarets is forbidden on precautionary notes. 

Other two minarets at the Railway Station are in better conditions and they are perhaps the tallest in Ahmedabad.

Jami Masjid (Mosque)




Jami Mosque is situated in the middle of the city close to the east of Teen Darwaja popularly known as Jama Masjid. Sultan Ahmed Shah started its construction in 1412 and finished it in 1424. It can be compared with the Jama Mosque of Delhi. It has 707 pillars including inside pillars and those in the veranda. On both sides of the wall of minaret, there are beautiful recesses with attractive carvings. The atmosphere of the mosque is conducive for worship of the Allah (Lord).                                                
                                                                                                    Part 2 in next issue ....

: Ilyas Patel - email : iap.patel@gmail.com


India’s Postal History from the Feudal Era to Independence, 1947
Part 2(East India Company-1600-1774)



Postal System between 1600 – 1765

The East India Company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth on December 31, 1600.  The company entered India from Surat in 1608, and set up a factory(storage place for trading) with an agreement from Moghul Court in 1612.  With the arrival of the East India Company, the modern postal system started to develop, but solely to expedite trade mainly textiles. India was the leader in manufacture and export of Textiles in the world.

As the company expanded its trading practices to Madras in 1639, Bombay in 1687, and Calcutta in 1688, the company used the existing postal runners already in position and fostered under the Mogul rulers  to communicate between its headquarters, cotton factories, and store houses.     There were several early challenges to communication by mail.  The runners have to face enormous difficulties and  challenges in conveying mails as the routes were infested by bandits, wild animals, bad weather and boats getting sunk while crossing rivers; all which affected the speed of delivery. Rudyard Kippling’spoem titled “Foot-Service To The Hills” make special references to the dangers of the OVERLAND MAILS in India.  With passing of times and evolution of administration,  dawk runners passed through trackless jungles in the night with escorts of mashalchey(torch bearer), drummer and a pear-head fitted with jingling bells on his shoulders.  

For secrecy in particular, East India Company employed their own dawk/mail runners which guarantees their own needs were looked after. The job of mail runners were spying too, which kept the East India Company abreast with current developments of the various provinces in India. Company’s employees were permitted to use its mail runners to carry their private mails. Persons not connected with the company could not use this facility and secondly, mails runners of the company moved between its specific factories. Early mail runners were called ‘DakHakaras’ in Northern India, ‘Pattamars’ in South India, and ‘Cossids’ in Bengal.

The Portuguese in the Deccan called their postal runners “pattamr”. The word is perhaps the ‘Konkani-Path-mar’, a courier

“Harkara” are originally men employed to provide information of various types for merchants, kings intelligence agencies etc. Later they were employed for as postal runners.

The first official reference to a post office in India, during the time of the East India Company, was a letter dated August 27, 1688.  The ‘Court of Directors’ asked the Council of Bombay to erect a ‘post office’ to convey mail to Surat, and other places.




Mail runner from India


First Communication route
           
Since the Calcutta and Madras were now established trading centres of East India Company and communication between the two cities was necessary. In 1712, arrangements were made to carry letters from St. George, Madras to Ganjam. At Ganjam, mail runners from Calcutta met with their counterparts from Madras, exchanged mail, and returned home, and vice versa.

East India Company- Trading to Politics in India

The year 1757 marked the year for the battle of Plassey against Siraj-Ud-Daullah, the Nawab of Bengal.  It was followed by the battle of Buxar, on October 22, 1764, against Mir Kasim, who had taken over as the Nawab.  The skirmishes paved the way for the East India Company to rule over India.  The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on August 16, 1765. The Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor, Alamgir II; and major general Robert Clive, a British Lord, who served with the East India Company, were signatories. 

Based on the terms of the agreement, Shah Alam II granted the East India Company Diwani rights, or the right to collect taxes on behalf of the emperor from the eastern province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.  The treaty marks the beginning of the British rule in India with the establishment of Bengal Presidency as the capital, both politically and constitutionally.  It also the end of the ‘feudal era’ of kings and kingdoms in India. The kingdoms slowly became to be known as Princely states who managed their state affairs with the dominance of Imperial government.

This event of East India Company entering into politics in India coincided with Britain’s Industrial revolution starting from 1760. India provided Capital, Raw Material; and Market to the Britain’s Industrial revolution. India helped the Britain’s  Industrial revolution, the Modern Age of Britain.

Postal system between 1766-1774(Clive Post)

With the growing political interest of East India Company  in India, the need for better communication was a must. The existing postal system was working in a disorderly manner without any supervision and control, which was inadequate for good government and defence of the company. Robert Clive, as commander in chief of the company, reorganized the postal system by March 24, 1766.  The new system became known as ‘Clive Post’ to carry the company’s dawk and private letters of servants.  This was the first step for a regular postal system was first introduced in India.

“All letters will be sent to Government House at Fort William where it will be sorted, made up into separate bundles, separate destinations, with the company's seal in the presence of the postmaster, then termed postal writer, or his assistant. The postmaster, or his assistant, must be at Government House every night to attend the receipt, scrutiny, and dispatch of dak.”
           
Clive ordered that the postmaster for Calcutta be appointed from the subordinate rank of the company’s servants to look after the postal business of the government from the Calcutta headquarters of the company.  Government House became the main hub, instead of the post office, on the ‘old post office street’ in the white town of Calcutta. Clive Post was for official correspondence only. Zamindars/landlords who were very resourceful were made responsible for supply of runners to carry mails.

Calcutta was connected by six mail routes, Dacca, Ganjam, Malda, Lakhimpur(Chittagong), Murshidabad and Patna,  later  extended upto Allahabad.  This plan suffered heavily when the position of postmaster was abolished and replaced with an assistant or sub-secretary. Also there was no proper management of these postal services.



To be Contd… Part 3 in the next issue

: Swamynathan R - email : swamyxyz@yahoo.com


In Memory of Dr Satyendra Agrawal….

 





Rose Philately
Roses from Denmark


Date of Issue : 2 January 2018


Roses and Messages
One of the things letters and roses have in common is that they are both used to convey messages. For centuries, the subtlety of the rose has been deeply symbolic, so there is always an underlying message in which bouquet you give to whom. The red rose is strongly associated with love and desire, while the white rose represents innocence and purity. And death. A purple rose is often linked with enchantment, and finally, a yellow rose is viewed as an expression of falsehood.


New issues from other Countries
Australia



18 January 2018 : Australian Legends 2018 of TV entertainment

The Australia Post Australian Legends Award recognises individuals who have shaped Australian society and identity in a variety of positive ways. In 2018, Australia Post honours five much-loved television entertainers. These consummate performers have entertained, informed and delighted generations of Australians, transfixing television audiences across the country. Together they encompass a range of remarkable talents, from serious journalism to variety hosting, interviewing, singing, acting and comedy
.
Canada



15 January 2018 : From Far and Wide


“This definitive series offers a traveller’s view of many must-see places throughout Canada,” reads the souvenir sheet.

The five non-denominated Permanent stamps in the top row feature St. John’s, N.L.; Hopewell Rocks, N.B.; MacMillan Provincial Park, B.C.; Prince Edward Island National Park; Québec’s Parc national de l’Île-Bonaventure-et-du-Rocher-Percé.

The remaining four stamps are denominated $1, $1.20, $1.80 and $2.50, respectively, and depict Pisew Falls Provincial Park, Man.; Point Pelee National Park, Ont.; Naats’ihch’oh National Park Reserve, N.W.T.; and Arctic Bay, Nunavut.
Because definitive stamps are typically smaller than commemoratives, they can pose a challenge for designers with their 24 mm by 20 mm canvas.

5 January 2018 :  Lunar Year of Dog





The Miniature Sheet illustration shows two puppies playing with their mother, designed to resemble a typical house dog in China. On the border of the Miniature Sheet, a narrative in Chinese characters explains some of the background of the Chinese zodiac followed by information regarding the Year of the Dog and the Chinese seal which appears on the left side of the illustration denotes Wuxu.


26 January 2018 : 1960’s Popular Culture



Jersey looks back at the popular culture of the 1960s on seven stamps to be issued on Jan. 26. Jersey Post describes the designs as exploring “the language, music, fashion, events, food and leisure pursuits typified by that era.”
Jersey is a picturesque island situated just off the coast of France and as such has long been a haven for tourists. Known in the 1960s as the 'Honeymoon Island', local politician Cyril Le Marquand described Jersey's tourism industry as “the firmest pillar in our economy today”, which contrasts with nowadays where finance is the dominant industry. The 1960s was a prominent period of large scale socio-political change and counter culture during which people felt increasingly at-ease to express themselves through music, fashion and leisure pursuits. This is no different in Jersey, where the sport of surfing boomed and brought with it a new and exciting culture which has endured to this day.
Denmark
2 January 2018 : Dream – Smile Minisheet



This Mini sheet has been designed by noted artist, singer, song writer and  Peace Activist Yoko Ono. She is also known for her work in performance art and film making.  The sheet features two stamps with symbolic messages on a moon and Sun. The Moon says 'Dream' and the Sun says 'Smile'. In the background the phrases "I Love You "n We"ll meet again appears. This is a global message for one and all.

Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono has devoted her life to battling for a world of peace and understanding, and to making people more aware of their surroundings. From October 2017 through February 2018, the Kunsthal Charlottenborg art gallery in Copenhagen is hosting a special exhibition entitled YOKO ONO: TRANSMISSION. It is an exhibition that explores the famous artist’s unique methods of transmitting her insightful messages about artistic philosophy and peace in diverse ways to people all over the world. The minisheet of two stamps has been created specifically for this exhibition.
Iceland
15 February 2018 : Europa 2018 Bridges



The first stamp features footbridge over the Ellioaa estuary. The second stamps depicts a suspension bridge over Jokulsa river on Breiomerkursandur- one of the shortest glacial rivers in the country.
Malaysia
15 January 2018 : Working Dogs



Pos Malaysia Berhad (Pos Malaysia) issued the first stamp series of 2018 themed "Animals with Various Special Roles - Working Dogs "  featuring three types of well-known working dogs, namely detector dogs, protection dogs and guide dogs.
"This collection highlights the importance of working dogs trained to perform specific tasks to assist humans, for example in crime prevention, detection of concealed substances or objects and to assist visually impaired individuals.




stamp collection displays a sketch of a firefighter and a Border Collie, a policeman and a Belgian Shepherd and a blind man with a Golden Retriever, while the miniature sheet features an illustration of a policeman with a German Shepherd and Labrador.
Acknowledgement
- Ananthapuri Stamp Bulletin December 2017 edited by Mohanchandran Nair
- Deccan Philatelist edited by Col Jayanta Dutta
- Judaica Thematic Society (UK) December  2017 Newsletter edited by Gary Goodman

Blogs & Websites

Philatelic Clubs & Societies 
Ananthapuri Philatelic Association, Thiruvanthapuram
Baroda Philatelic Society -  http://www.vadophil.org/
Chandigarh Philatelic Club
Deccan Philatelic Society – Pune, Maharashtra
Eastern India Philatelists’ Association - http://www.filacapsule.blogspot.com/   
India Study Circle -  http://www.indiastudycircle.org/
Indian Stamp Ghar - http://www.indianstampghar.com/
Indian Thematic Society, Ludhiana -   http://indianthematicstamps.webs.com/
Ludhiana Philatelic Club
Numismatic & Philatelic Association of Vellore Fort 
http://numismaticphilavellore.site40.net/index.htm
Philatelic Congress of India - http://www.philateliccongressofindia.com/
Philatelic Society of Rajasthan, Jaipur
Philatelic Society of India , Mumbai : http://www.psi1897.com/
Rajkot Philatelic Society – Rajkot, Gujarat
Gujarat Philatelic Association - Ahmedabad
South India Philatelists Association -  http://www.sipa.org.in/
The Army Philatelic Society, Pune


RAINBOW STAMP CLUB

This is a blog of e-stamp Club www.rainbowstampclub.blogspot.com . The idea of this blog is to extend philatelic fraternity in all corners of the world. Readers may write about themselves with their collecting interests and share new ideas with other philatelists.  New Post on recent issues, news on stamp activities and Contribution by members are published every day on this blog. Readers may also express their views on any philatelic matter which will be published under Club News at Rainbow Stamp Cub Blog. Philatelic Clubs and Societies may also send brief write ups. Readers may send reports on new issues, special covers, cancellations & philatelic activities of their area for inclusion in this Blog. - Editor

Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletters
VADOPHIL, Editor - Prashant Pandya & Timir Shah  and published by Baroda Philatelic Society, Vadodara. Website -http://www.vadophil.org/

ITS Stamp News - Quarterly - Editor: Suraj Jaitly Publisher: Indian Thematic Society website - http://itsstampnews.blogspot.com/

Ananthpuri Stamp Bulletin - Monthly e -stamp bulletin of Anathapuri Philatelic Association, Thiruvanthapuram

Journal of the Army Philatelic Society : Editor – Col Jayanta Dutta

India Post – Quarterly Journal of the India Study Circle publishes original articles submitted by members of ISC.

 Deccan Philatelist from Deccan Philatelic Socity, Pune.  edited by Col Jayanta Dutta

Courtesy - News and Image Resource to this issue : Indian Philately Digest ,  Stamps of India ;  WOPA , Suresh R.- Bangalore, Dipok Dey- Kolkata Canadian Stamp News, Linn’s Stamp News

Address for communication :

Jeevan Jyoti,  c / o Mr. Ajay Srivastav Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun – 248002. India  
             
 E-mail –    j.jyoti9@gmail.com 

*  Last date for receiving write ups – 25th of every month. Kindly send images in jpg compressed format & text in MS Word only.  
          
*  If you liked this issue please forward it to your friends and help in promoting philately.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                …..Happy Collecting…………………………………………………………………………………            

Rainbow Stamp News is edited and published monthly by Jeevan Jyoti from Dehradun, ( Uttarakhand ) India for free circulation among philatelists.



























Recent Awards



INPEX 2017, Mumbai - Large Silver

CHINA 2016 - Bronze

TAIPEI 2015 - Bronze

CG International Philatelic Promotion Award 2014, Germany - ( 4th Position)

INPEX 2013, Mumbai - Vermeil

SHARJAH 2012, Sharjah ( UAE ) - Silver Bronze

IPHLA 2012, Mainz - Germany : Bronze

I
NDIPEX 2011 - World Stamp Exhibition, New Delhi - Bronze

JOBURG 2010 - 26th Asian International Stamp Exhibition, Johannesburg - Silver Bronze

PORTUGAL 2010 - World Stamp Exhibition, Lisbon - Bronze

Hong Kong 2009 -23rd Asian International Stamp Exhibition, Hong Kong - Silver Bronze

About Me

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Participated in different philatelic exhibitions Wrote for philately column in The Pioneer and worked as sub-editor for U-Phil Times published from United Philatelists, Kanpur.Did Schooling from Kanpur Vidya Mandir and Post Graduation in Botany from A.N.D. College Kanpur.

Disclaimer

The views expressed in the articles published on Rainbow Stamp News Blog are solely those of the authors and contributors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Blog Owner. The Readers are requested to contact author or the contributor of the particular article if they have any objection or do not agree with the views expressed in the article . Please do not ask the Blog Owner to delete or change any Post published on this blog.The Post will be removed only after strong recommendation of the original author / contributor after proper verification .

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